Assessing MaaS governance & policies
Task 1 - Analysis of best practices and leading initiatives in regulatory policies and governance models
The objective of D2.1 is to provide comprehensive insights on mobility as a service (MaaS) regulatory schemes. To achieve this objective, the research team collected secondary data and conducted semi-structured interviews with public authorities and MaaS operators to investigate factors that influence MaaS regulatory policies and governance models. In addition, Amsterdam, Barcelona, Helsinki and Manchester were selected as 4 case studies in this deliverable to further explore the future regulatory scheme for MaaS deployment. An aggregate data analysis was performed to compare 4 case studies. These findings, together, provide 3 implications for European policy makers to design and implement more suitable regulatory policies and governance models to support the development of MaaS.
First, the findings show that there is a huge potential to leverage existing transport policies at national level and extend them to MaaS. However, from a long-term perspective, the MaaS operators expect that EU will impose concrete standards to MaaS in the future, which might gradually replace the regulations at national level. Therefore, the policy makers might be prepared for an evolving process to extend their existing national regulation to MaaS and then adapt it based on the update of EU regulations. It is critical to take this evolving process into account when designing a transport strategy and plan.
Second, the findings identify 12 factors that might potentially influence MaaS regulatory policies and governance models. These factors are further categorized into 3 groups: economic factors (i.e., market competition and market entry barrier), political factors (i.e., taxation, subsidies, incentive to consumers, data sharing and standardization, data privacy and security, use of public resources, and vulnerability) and social factors (i.e., accessibility and equity, environmental benefits, and health and well-being of citizens). For policy makers, it is important to examine these factors and evaluate how the design and implementation of MaaS regulatory schemes might be positively or negatively influenced by these factors. The design of best MaaS regulatory scheme will also largely depend on the combination of these factors.
Finally, the analysis of 4 case studies indicate that the European regulations might be the most important one for MaaS implementation in the future although there is currently no specific MaaS regulation at this level. With concrete European regulations, policy makers are able to choose the most suitable governance model and maximise the effectiveness of MaaS regulatory schemes.
Task 2 - Set up a scoreboard and application to partner cities
This task will set up a scoreboard to visualise the level of compliance towards MaaS under a given governance scheme – i.e. how well prepared a given regulatory framework is – in order to anticipate decision making within an easily accessible assessment framework (the UCL MaaSLab’s MaaS Maturity Index will be used as a basis to design the scoreboard). This scoreboard will be applied (and refine/iterate, where needed) to PROMaaS partner cities. It will enable decision makers to enhance soundness of their decisions by identifying regulatory priorities, suitableness, and actions. In addition, T2.2 will analyse the barriers of MaaS introduction and the enablers of achieving better balance and effective cooperation between all stakeholders in the mobility ecosystem and resilient governance. In this way, the public sector can better accommodate for Maas without the neglect of environmental, social economic and policy implications. Stakeholders will be engaged for the set-up and refinement of regulatory assessment scoreboard and for the application to partner cities.
In-progress report on regulatory assessment scoreboard and the analysis of partner cities (31 Dec 2020)